Friday, July 28, 2023

Ancient routes to America

This map from the Museum of Native American History in Bentonville, Arkansas, shows the ancient routes to America.

Thanks to

With recent genetic research it is known that ancient migrations were made into the Americas from people living in the Australia/New Zealand area of the South Pacific. Some American archaeology museums are now accepting that there were at least two, and possibly three, ancient migration routes. This map from the MONAH museum in Arkansas shows the "southern route" at the bottom, the standard Beringia route in the top left, and an eastern route shown in the upper right.


Once when I was in Brisbane, Australia, a temple worker noticed my accent and asked if I was American. I said yes. 

He said, "Did you know Lehi landed here on his way to America?"

"That's a new one," I replied.

"It's obvious. Just look at Alma 10:2."

I pulled it up on my phone. "I am Amulek; I am the son of Giddonah, who was the son of Ishmael, who was a descendant of Aminadi." (Alma 10:2)

I told him that made more sense than that Lehi landed in Mesoamerica!

Friday, July 21, 2023

Pre-Columbian civilizations in North America

Gregory Little makes an important observation about the Smithsonian map from the late 1800s.

I need to do this again... this is the Smithsonian's Bureau of Ethnology map showing the general distribution of mound sites they had identified in the eastern half of the USA by the late 1800s. The red dots indicate areas where mounds, sometimes hundreds, were found. However, they typically then looked only at places that were easily visited: by roads, railways, and rivers. For just one simple example, the entire Gulf coast of Florida should be solid red. Another example: the mountains of NE Alabama has hundreds to a thousand or more stone mounds that were not found until the 2000s.

(click to enlarge)

Friday, July 14, 2023

Portsmouth site

Portsmouth, Ohio, is on the Ohio river about 90 miles south of Columbus. I've visited here a few times and highly recommend the site (as well as the other sites in Ohio).

Portsmouth is the location of a complex of earthworks dating from 100 BC to 500 AD, built by Adena and Hopewell cultures. Across the river in Kentucky is an unusual earthwork that was plowed up for cattle grazing.

Squier and Davis survey (click to enlarge)

There's a nice overview with references on wikipedia.

This site has some additional info:

Blue lines show the embankment walls

Greg Little tweeted about it recently:

1. 1800s survey of another portion of the Portsmouth, Ohio earthworks. It was located across the Ohio River in Kentucky. The exact location is known. 2. This is the spot where the central mound shown on the survey existed and the owner of the site is on the left. He related that his grandfather leveled the mound and intricate circular earthworks to make a cattle grazing area. He also related that his grandfather came to regret it.