Friday, December 15, 2023
Wednesday, December 13, 2023
Wednesday, December 6, 2023
On multiple occasions, David Whitmer described his experience with the messenger who took the abridged plates from Harmony to Cumorah. This account used to be in the Seminary and Institute manuals for the Book of Mormon, but is no longer taught.
The Saints book, Volume 1, p. 69, inexplicably omitted this account from the narrative of David Whitmer taking Joseph and Oliver from Harmony to Fayette. Saints explains how David's fields were miraculously plowed so he could go to Harmony, as David explained to Joseph F. Smith and Orson Pratt in 1878.
Note 16 in the online edition of Saints links to the page of Joseph F. Smith's letter to John Taylor describing the trip to Fayette.
The very next page in that letter relates David Whitmer's account of Cumorah, but Saints omits that from the narrative. Here's the link to that page.
In another account, David explained that Joseph Smith said this messenger who had the plates was one of the Three Nephites. I'll post that account separately.
BTW, if you read Saints, page 70, you'll see the following dialog which combines what David actually related with a fictional identification.
The audacity of this fictional narrative is stunning. The editors of Saints adapted David's account of what the messenger told his mother, Mary Whitmer, which was fair enough. But they omitted David's account of meeting the messenger on the way to Fayette, which was how he knew it was the same messenger who met his mother.
Worse, they omit David's explanation that Joseph identified the messenger as one of the Three Nephites.
They also omit what Mary herself said; i.e., that the messenger identified himself as Brother Nephi. (We see from 3 Nephi 19:4 that Nephi was one of the twelve disciples, three of whom were allowed to tarry, as described in 3 Nephi 28.)
Instead, they insert the fictional dialog that the messenger said "My name is Moroni," which never happened. The origin of that identification is from Andrew Jenson, who assumed Mary was wrong because, in his opinion, it was Moroni who had charge of the plates.
It should be obvious to any reader familiar with Church history that David Whitmer conversed with both this messenger and Moroni. David knew they were two different individuals and he even explained that Joseph said the messenger was one of the Three Nephites.
By creating a false narrative in Saints, the editors have not only misled generations of Latter-day Saints, but have generated confusion about the nature of resurrected beings. Now we are asked to believe that an old man, 5'8" or 5'9," heavy set with a white beard and hair, wearing a brown wool suit (which fits the description of the Three Nephites, assuming they were changed around the age of 72 as their fellow disciples were promised), is the same individual as the resurrected Moroni who was glorious, wearing a white seamless robe, and taller than the average men of the time.
For a discussion, see
The same person?
David Whitmer’s description
Oliver Cowdery’s description
suddenly approached by a very pleasant, nice looking old man… He was I should
think about 5 ft 8 or 9 inches tall and heavy set, about such a man as James
there, but heavier, his face was as large, he was dressed in a suit of brown
woolen clothes his hair and beard were white like bro. Pratts, but his beard
was not so heavy. I also remember that he had on his back a sort of knap
sack, with something in shaped like a book. It was the messenger who had the
The stature of this personage was a little above the common size of men in this age; his garment was perfectly white, and had the appearance of being without seam.
Tuesday, November 21, 2023
Hemispheric model in Church history: Comparison between the
Wentworth letter and Orson Pratt’s pamphlet.
Some Latter-day Saint scholars and critics claim that Joseph
Smith embraced, adopted, or tolerated a hemispheric model for the setting of
the Book of Mormon in the Americas. At the same time, many of these scholars
and critics reject what Joseph and Oliver taught about the New York Cumorah.
I’m fine with people believing whatever they want, because I
favor charity and understanding, but I also favor clarity. We can see from
Letter VII and other historical sources that the New York Cumorah was an
established fact. Because the text of the Book of Mormon never mentions America, the only reason to
assume Lehi landed in the western hemisphere is because Joseph and Oliver said
they did. The argument that Joseph and Oliver were wrong about Cumorah, but correct
about a setting in the Americas, seems irrational to me.
In terms of clarity, it is clear that some early Latter-day
Saints promoted a hemispheric model, particularly Parley P. and Orson Pratt and
Benjamin Winchester, who focused on Central America.
The scholars and critics who claim Joseph taught a
hemispheric model cite anonymous articles in the 1842 Times and Seasons as
proof. The articles were signed by “Ed.” and they assume Joseph was an active
editor. That’s not an unreasonable assumption, but it’s also not the only
reasonable assumption. The totality of the circumstances indicates that Joseph
was merely a nominal editor (in name only), as I discussed in The Lost City
of Zarahemla and other books.
Furthermore, Joseph himself refuted the hemispheric model in
the Wentworth letter.
In the 1 March 1842 edition of the Times and Seasons,
Joseph Smith published a letter over his signature titled “Church History.” The
letter responded to a request from John Wentworth, the editor and proprietor of
the Chicago Democrat, who sought information for a friend of his named Mr. Bastow.
The letter is commonly known now as the Wentworth letter. It
was included as a chapter in the lesson manual Teachings of the Presidents
of the Church: Joseph Smith.
In the first paragraph, Joseph wrote “As Mr. Bastow has
taken the proper steps to obtain correct information all that I shall ask at
his hands, is, that he publish the account entire, ungarnished, and without
As it turns out, Joseph didn’t need to worry about Mr.
Bastow. The group that declined to publish the Wentworth letter “entire,
ungarnished and without misrepresentation” was the Curriculum Department that
published the lesson manual. They omitted a key segment of the Wentworth letter,
and the omission continues to cause confusion among Latter-day Saints and their
Below is a screen shot of the lesson manual that shows the ellipses for the deleted (censored) material.
It's no wonder so many are confused and are susceptible to the claims of the scholars and critics who reject what Joseph taught.
The Wentworth letter appears to have been adapted in part from an 1840 pamphlet published by Orson Pratt. The Joseph Smith Papers included Orson Pratt’s 1840 pamphlet to provide context for the Wentworth letter. They highlighted the parts of Pratt’s pamphlet that correspond to the Wentworth letter.
The table below shows the comparison, starting with page 14
of the pamphlet.
Two key changes Joseph made.
1. 1. Orson Pratt wrote “The second race came directly
from the city of Jerusalem, about six hundred years before Christ, being
Israelites, principally the descendants of Joseph.” Joseph clarified by writing
“The second race came directly from the city of Jerusalem, about six hundred
years before Christ. They were principally Israelites of the descendants of
Joseph.” Joseph’s explanation accommodates non-Israelites among the group,
where Pratt’s version said they were all Israelites.
2. 2. Orson Pratt wrote “The remaining remnant, having
dwindled into an uncivilized state, still continue to inhabit the land,
although divided into a “multitude of nations,” and are called by Europeans the
“American Indians.” He then spent several pages claiming that Lehi landed in
South America, that “The persecuted nation emigrated towards the northern parts
of South America, leaving the wicked nation in possession of the middle and
southern parts of the same,” and that, “The second colony, which left Jerusalem
eleven years after the remnant of Joseph left that city, [i.e., the Mulekites]
landed in North America, and emigrated from thence, to the northern parts of
South America; and about four hundred years after, they were discovered by the
Nephites, as we stated in the foregoing.” Joseph replaced Orson Pratt’s
hemispheric explanation with the simple declaration that “The remnant are the
Indians that now inhabit this country.” Because Joseph wrote the letter in
Nauvoo, Illinois, and sent it to Mr. Wentworth in Chicago, Illinois, the term “this
country” naturally meant the country in which both sender and recipient lived.
This is consistent with the revelations, as note 12 in the Joseph Smith Papers
Other interpretations are possible. For example, some
scholars/critics claim that when Joseph wrote “this country” he actually meant “this
hemisphere” and thereby incorporated Orson Pratt’s theory instead of refuting
Read the comparisons and decide for yourself.
Orson Pratt –
Joseph Smith –
1842 Wentworth letter
p. 14. He had
not gone far, before he was overtaken by an officer with a search-warrant,
who flattered himself with the idea, that he should surely obtain the plates;
after searching very diligently, he was sadly disappointed at not finding
them. Mr Smith then drove on; but before he got to his journey’s end, he was
again overtaken by an officer on the same business, and after ransacking the
waggon very carefully, he went his way, as much chagrined as the first, at
not being able to discover the object of his research. Without any further
molestation, he pursued his journey until he came into the northern part of
Pennsylvania, near the Susquehannah river, in which part his father-in-law
provided himself with a home, he commenced translating the record, by the
gift and power of God, through the means of the Urim and Thummim; and
being a poor writer, he was under the necessity of employing a scribe, to
write the translation as it came from his mouth.
In the mean
time, a few of the original characters were accurately transcribed and
translated by Mr Smith, which, with the translation, were taken by a
gentleman by the name of Martin Harris, to the city of New York, where they
were presented to a learned gentleman by the name of [Charles] Anthon, who
professed to be extensively acquainted with many languages, both ancient and
modern. He examined them; but was unable to decipher them correctly; but he
presumed, that if the original records could be brought, he could assist in
return. Mr Smith continued the work of translation, as his pecuniary
circumstances would permit, until he finished the unsealed part of the
records. The part translated is entitled the “Book of Mormon,” which contains
nearly as much reading as the Old Testament.
Through the medium of the Urim and Thummim I translated the record by the gift, and power of God.
this important and most interesting book,
read the history of ancient America,
early settlement by a colony
from the tower of Babel,
confusion of languages,
beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era.
Records we are informed,
America, in ancient times, has been inhabited by two distinct races of
or more ancient race, came directly from the great tower, being called
race came directly from the city of Jerusalem, about six hundred years before
Christ, being Israelites,
In this important and interesting book
of ancient America is unfolded,
first settlement by a colony
from the tower of Babel,
confusion of languages
beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era.
informed by these records
that America in ancient times has been inhabited by two distinct races of people.
The first were called Jaredites and came directly from the tower of Babel.11
The second race came directly from the city of Jerusalem, about six hundred years before Christ. They were principally Israelites,
p. 15. principally
the descendants of Joseph.
nation, or Jaredites, were destroyed about the time that the Israelites came
from Jerusalem, who succeeded them in the inheritance of the country.
principal nation of the second race, fell in battle towards the close of the
descendants of Joseph.
The Jaredites were destroyed about the time that the Israelites came from Jerusalem, who succeeded them in the inheritance of the country.
nation of the second race fell in battle towards the close of the fourth
remnant, having dwindled into an uncivilized state, still continue to inhabit
the land, although divided into a “multitude of nations,” and are called by
Europeans the “American Indians.”
The remnant are the Indians that now inhabit this country.12
JSP Note 12: JS
previously implied or stated that the “Lamanites” were ancestors of the
American Indians. In 1830 JS received a revelation that directed Oliver
Cowdery to “go unto the Lamanites & Preach my Gospel unto them.” Between
late 1830 and early 1831, Cowdery and others preached among the Seneca Nation
of Indians in New York, the Wyandot Indians in Ohio, and the Shawnee and
Delaware Indians west of Missouri. (Letter to Noah C. Saxton, 4 Jan. 1833;
Revelation, Sept. 1830–B [D&C 28:8]; Letter from Oliver Cowdery, 12 Nov.
1830; Pratt, Autobiography, 54; Letter to Hyrum Smith, 3–4 Mar. 1831.)
We learn from
this very ancient history, that at the confusion of languages, when the Lord
scattered the people upon all the face of the earth, the Jaredites, being a
righteous people, obtained favour in the sight of the Lord, and were not
confounded. And because of their righteousness, the Lord miraculously led
them from the tower to the great ocean, where they were commanded to build
vessels, in which they were marvellously brought across the great deep to the
shores of North America.11
And the Lord
God promised to give them America, which was a very choice land in his sight,
for an inheritance. And He swore unto them in his wrath, that whoso should
possess this land of promise, from that time henceforth and forever, should
serve him, the true and only God, or they should be swept off when the
fulness of his wrath should come upon them, and they were fully ripened in
iniquity. Moreover, he promised to make them a great and powerful nation, so
that there should be no greater nation upon all the face of the earth.
in process of time, they became a very numerous and powerful people,
occupying principally North America; building large cities in all quarters of
the land; being a civilized and enlightened nation. Agriculture and machinery
were carried on to a great extent. Commercial and manufacturing business
flourished on every hand; yet, in consequence of wickedness, they were often
visited with terrible judgments. Many prophets were raised up among them from
generation to generation, who testified against the wickedness of the people,
and prophesied of judgments and calamities which awaited them, if they did
not repent, &c. Sometimes they were visited by pestilence and plagues,
and sometimes by famine and war, until at length (having occupied the land
some fifteen or
p. 16. sixteen
hundred years) their wickedness became so great, that the Lord threatened, by
the mouth of his prophets, to utterly destroy them from the face of the land.
But they gave no heed to these warnings; therefore the word of the Lord was
fulfilled; and they were entirely destroyed; leaving their houses, their
cities, and their land desolate; and their sacred records also, which were
kept on gold plates, were left by one of their last prophets whose name was
Ether, in such a situation, that they were discovered by the remnant of
Joseph, who soon afterwards were brought from Jerusalem to inherit the
of Joseph were also led in a miraculous manner from Jerusalem, in the first
year of the reign of Zedekiah, king of Judah. They were first led to the
eastern borders of the Red Sea; then they journeyed for some time along the
borders thereof, nearly in a south-east direction; after which, they altered
their course nearly eastward, until they came to the great waters, where, by
the commandment of God, they built a vessel, in which they were safely
brought across the great Pacific ocean, and landed upon the western coast of
eleventh year of the reign of Zedekiah, at the time the Jews were carried
away captive into Babylon, another remnant were brought out of Jerusalem;
some of whom were descendants of Judah. They landed in North America; soon
after which they emigrated into the northern parts of South America, at which
place they were discovered by the remnant of Joseph, something like four
hundred years after.14
ancient records, we learn, that this remnant of Joseph, soon after they
landed, separated themselves into two distinct nations. This division was
caused by a certain portion of them being greatly persecuted, because of
their righteousness, by the remainder. The persecuted nation emigrated
towards the northern parts of South America, leaving the wicked nation in
possession of the middle and southern parts of the same. The former were
called Nephites, being led by a prophet whose name was Nephi. The latter were
called Lamanites, being led by a very wicked man whose name was Laman. The
Nephites had in their possession a copy of the Holy Scriptures, viz. the five
books of Moses, and the prophecies of the holy
p. 17. prophets,
down to Jeremiah, in whose days they left Jerusalem. These Scriptures were
engraved on plates of brass, in the Egyptian language.15 They themselves also
made plates, soon after their landing, on which they began to engrave their
own history, prophecies, visions, and revelations. All these sacred records
were kept by holy and righteous men, who were inspired by the Holy Ghost; and
were carefully preserved and handed down from generation to generation.
And the Lord
gave unto them the whole continent, for a land of promise, and he promised,
that they, and their children after them, should inherit it, on condition of
their obedience to his commandments; but if they were disobedient, they
should be cut off from his presence. And the Nephites began to prosper in the
land, according to their righteousness, and they multiplied and spread forth
to the east, and west, and north; building large villages, and cities, and
synagogues, and temples, together with forts, and towers, and fortifications,
to defend themselves against their enemies. And they cultivated the earth,
and raised various kinds of grain in abundance. They also raised numerous
flocks of domestic animals, and became a very wealthy people; having in
abundance gold, silver, copper, tin, iron, &c. Arts and sciences
flourished to a great extent. Various kinds of machinery were in use. Cloths,
of various kinds, were manufactured. Swords, cimeters, axes, and various
implements of war were made, together with head-shields, arm-shields, and
breastplates, to defend themselves in battle with their enemies. And in the
days of their righteousness, they were a civilized, enlightened, and happy
But, on the
other hand, the Lamanites, because of the hardness of their hearts, brought
down many judgments upon their own heads; nevertheless, they were not
destroyed as a nation; but the Lord God sent forth a curse upon them, and
they became a dark, loathsome, and filthy people. Before their rebellion,
they were white and exceedingly fair, like the Nephites; but the Lord God
cursed them in their complexions, and they were changed to a dark colour; and
they became a wild, savage, and ferocious people; being great enemies to the
Nephites, whom they sought, by every means, to destroy, and many times came
p. 18. against
them, with their numerous hosts to battle, but were repulsed by the Nephites,
and driven back to their own possessions, not, however, generally speaking,
without great loss on both sides; for tens of thousands were very frequently
slain, after which they were piled together in great heaps upon the face of
the ground, and covered with a shallow covering of earth, which will
satisfactorily account for those ancient mounds, filled with human bones, so
numerous at the present day, both in North and South America.
colony, which left Jerusalem eleven years after the remnant of Joseph left
that city, landed in North America, and emigrated from thence, to the
northern parts of South America; and about four hundred years after, they
were discovered by the Nephites, as we stated in the foregoing.
called the people of Zarahemla. They had been perplexed with many wars among
themselves; and having brought no records with them, their language had
become corrupted, and they denied the being of God; and at the time they were
discovered by the Nephites they were very numerous, and only in a partial
state of civilization; but the Nephites united with them, and taught them the
Holy Scriptures, and they were restored to civilization, and became one
nation with them.16 And in process of time, the Nephites began to build ships
near the Isthmus of Darien, and launch them forth into the western ocean, in
which great numbers sailed a great distance to the northward, and began to
colonize North America.17 Other colonies emigrated by land, and in a few centuries
the whole continent became peopled. North America, at that time, was almost
entirely destitute of timber, it having been cut off by the more ancient
race, who came from the great tower, at the confusion of languages; but the
Nephites became very skilful in building houses of cement; also, much timber
was carried by the way of shipping from South to North America. They also
planted groves and began to raise timber, that in time their wants might be
supplied. Large cities were built in various parts of the continent, both
among the Lamanites and Nephites. The law of Moses was observed by the
latter. Numerous prophets were raised up from time to time throughout their
p. 19. Many
records, both historical and prophetical, which were of great size, were kept
among them; some on plates of gold and other metals, and some on other
materials. The sacred records, also, of the more ancient race who had been
destroyed, were found by them. These were engraved on plates of gold. They
translated them into their own language by the gift and power of God, through
the means of the Urim and Thummim. They contained an historical account from
the creation down to the Tower of Babel, and from that time down until they
were destroyed, comprising a period of about thirty-four hundred, or
thirty-five hundred years. They also contained many prophecies, great and
marvellous, reaching forward to the final end and consummation of all things,
and the creation of the new heaven and new earth.
also among the Nephites prophesied of great things. They opened the secrets
of futurity, and saw the coming of Messiah in the flesh, and prophesied of
the blessings to come upon their descendants in the latter times, and made
known the history of unborn generations, and unfolded the grand events of
ages to come, and viewed the power, and glory, and majesty of Messiah’s
second advent, and beheld the establishment of the kingdom of peace, and
gazed upon the glories of the day of righteousness, and saw creation redeemed
from the curse, and all the righteous filled with songs of everlasting joy.
knew of the birth and crucifixion of Christ, by certain celestial and
terrestrial phenomena, which, at those times, were shown forth in fulfilment
of the predictions of many of their prophets. Notwithstanding the many
blessings with which they had been blessed, they had fallen into great
wickedness, and had cast out the saints and the prophets, and stoned and
killed them. Therefore, at the time of the crucifixion of Christ, they were
visited in great judgment. Thick darkness covered the whole continent. The
earth was terribly convulsed. The rocks were rent into broken fragments, and
afterwards found in seams and cracks upon all the face of the land. Mountains
were sunk into valleys, and valleys raised into mountains. The highways and
level roads were broken up and spoiled. Many cities were laid in ruins.
Others were buried up in the depths of the earth, and mountains occupied
p. 20. While
others were sunk, and waters came up in their stead, and others still were
burned by fire from heaven.18
predictions of their prophets were fulfilled upon their heads. Thus, the more
wicked part, both of the Nephites and Lamanites, were destroyed. Thus, the
Almighty executed vengeance and fury upon them, that the blood of the saints
and prophets might no longer cry from the ground against them.
p. 20. Those
who survived these terrible judgments, were favoured with the personal
ministry of Christ. For after He arose from the dead, and finished his
ministry at Jerusalem, and ascended to heaven, he descended in the presence
of the Nephites, who were assembled round about their temple in the northern
parts of South America. He exhibited to them his wounded hands, and side, and
feet; and commanded the law of Moses to be abolished; and introduced and
established the Gospel in its stead; and chose twelve disciples from among
them to administer the same; and instituted the sacrament; and prayed for and
blessed their little children; and healed their sick, and blind, and lame,
and deaf, and those who were afflicted in any way, and raised a man from the
dead, and showed forth his power in their midst; and expounded the
Scriptures, which had been given from the beginning down to that time; and
made known unto them all things which should take place down until He should
come in his glory, and from that time down to the end, when all people,
nations, and languages should stand before God to be judged, and the heaven
and the earth should pass away, and there should be a new heaven and new
earth. These teachings of Jesus were engraved upon plates, some of which are
contained in the book of Mormon; but the more part are not revealed in that
book, but are hereafter to be made manifest to the saints.19
had finished ministering unto them, he ascended into heaven; and the twelve
disciples, whom he had chosen, went forth upon all the face of the land,
preaching the gospel; baptizing those who repented for the remission of sins,
after which they laid their hands upon them, that they might receive the Holy
Spirit. Mighty miracles were wrought by them, and also by many of the church.
The Nephites and Lamanites were all converted unto the Lord, both in South
and North America: and they dwelt
This book also tells us that our Saviour made his appearance upon this continent after his resurrection, that he planted the gospel here in all its fulness, and richness, and power, and blessing; that they had apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers and evangelists; the same order, the same priesthood, the same ordinances, gifts, powers, and blessing, as was enjoyed on the eastern continent, that the people were cut off in consequence of their transgressions, that the last of their prophets who existed among them was commanded to write an abridgement of their prophesies, history &c., and to hide it up in the earth, and that it should come forth and be united with the bible for the accomplishment of the purposes of God in the last days. For a more particular account I would refer to the Book of Mormon, which can be purchased at Nauvoo, or from any of our travelling elders.
p. 21. in
righteousness above three hundred years; but towards the close of the fourth
century of the Christian era, they had so far apostatized from God, that he
suffered great judgments to fall upon them. The Lamanites, at that time,
dwelt in South America, and the Nephites in North America.
A great and
terrible war commenced between them, which lasted for many years, and
resulted in the complete overthrow and destruction of the Nephites. This war
commenced at the Isthmus of Darien, and was very destructive to both nations
for many years. At length, the Nephites were driven before their enemies, a
great distance to the north, and north-east; and having gathered their whole
nation together, both men, women, and children, they encamped on, and round
about the hill Cumorah, where the records were found, which is in the State
of New York, about two hundred miles west of the city of Albany. Here they
were met by the numerous hosts of the Lamanites, and were slain, and hewn
down, and slaughtered, both male and female—the aged, middle aged, and children.
Hundreds of thousands were slain on both sides; and the nation of the
Nephites were destroyed, excepting a few who had deserted over to the
Lamanites, and a few who escaped into the south country, and a few who fell
wounded, and were left by the Lamanites on the field of battle for dead,
among whom were Mormon and his son Moroni, who were righteous men.20
made an abridgement, from the records of his forefathers, upon plates, which
abridgement he entitled the “Book of Mormon;” and, (being commanded of God,)
he hid up in the hill Cumorah, all the sacred records of his forefathers
which were in his possession, except the abridgement called the “Book of
Mormon,” which he gave to his son Moroni to finish. Moroni survived his
nation a few years, and continued the writings, in which he informs us, that
the Lamanites hunted those few Nephites who escaped the great and tremendous
battle of Cumorah, until they were all destroyed, excepting those who were
mingled with the Lamanites, and that he was left alone, and kept himself hid,
for they sought to destroy every Nephite who would not deny the Christ. He furthermore
states, that the Lamanites were at war one with another, and that the
p. 22. whole
face of the land was one continual scene of murdering, robbing, and
plundering.21 He continued the history until the four hundred and twentieth
year of the Christian era, when, (by the commandment of God,) he hid up the
records in the hill Cumorah, where they remained concealed, until by the
ministry of an angel they were discovered to Mr Smith, who, by the gift and
power of God, translated them into the English language, by the means of the
Urim and Thummim, as stated in the foregoing.
book was translated, the Lord raised up witnesses to bear testimony to the
nations of its truth, who, at the close of the volume, send forth their
testimony, which reads as follows:—
“Be it known
unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people, unto whom this work shall
come, that we, through the grace of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus
Christ, have seen the plates which contain this record, which is a record of
the people of Nephi, and also of the Lamanites, their brethren, and also of
the people of Jared, who came from the tower of which hath been spoken; and
we also know that they have been translated by the gift and power of God, for
his voice hath declared it unto us; wherefore we know of a surety, that the
work is true. And we also testify that we have seen the engravings which are
upon the plates; and they have been shown unto us by the power of God, and
not of man. And we declare, with words of soberness, that an angel of God
came down from heaven, and he brought and laid before our eyes, that we
beheld and saw the plates, and the engravings thereon; and we know that it is
by the grace of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, that we beheld and
bear record that these things are true; and it is marvellous in our eyes,
nevertheless, the voice of the Lord commanded us that we should bear record
of it; wherefore, to be obedient unto the commandments of God, we bear
testimony of these things. And we know that if we are faithful in Christ, we
shall rid our garments of the blood of all men, and be found spotless before
the judgment seat of Christ, and shall dwell with him eternally in the
heavens. And the honour be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy
Ghost, which is one God. Amen.
Wednesday, November 1, 2023
Gregory Little posted this recently:
In the Preface of his 1905 book, Prehistoric Relics, Warren Moorehead related that there are "7500 collectors of archaeological specimens" in the US. These are a couple of them. It wasn't a "good" thing; most of these artifacts came from mounds.
Moorehead's book is available here:
Monday, October 30, 2023
Useful article from 1973:
A graphic shows two alternatives for Mulek that resemble what many LDS believe are the routes Lehi and Mulek took.